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THE GENERATION DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM
Progesterone also known as P4 (pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. Progesterone is essential for the regulation of normal female reproductive functions. The major physiological actions of progesterone are: a) in the uterus and ovary: induction of ovulation, facilitation of implantation, and maintenance of early pregnancy; b) in the mammary gland: lobular-alveolar development in preparation for milk secretion[3,4]; c) in the brain: neurobehavioral expression associated with sexual responsiveness and d) in the bone: prevention of bone loss. During the follicular phase of the cycle, progesterone levels remain low.[7-9] Following the LH surge and ovulation, luteal cells in the ruptured follicle produce progesterone in response to LH. During this, the luteal phase, progesterone rises rapidly to a maximum of 10-20 ng/mL at day following ovulation. During the luteal phase, progesterone transforms the estrogen-primed endometrium from a proliferative to a secretory state. If pregnancy does not occur, progesterone levels decrease during the last four days of the cycle due to the regression of the corpus luteum.[7,8-13] If conception occurs, the levels of progesterone are maintained at mid-luteal levels by the corpus luteum until about week six. At that time the placenta becomes the main source of progesterone and levels rise from approximately 10-50 ng/mL in the first trimester to approximately 50-280 ng/mL in the third trimester.[7,14,15]
- 1.Potential use of single measurement of serum progesterone in detecting early pregnancy failure Hanita O MD, MPATH, Hanisah AH MD, MPATH
- 2.Metabocard for Hydroxyprogesterone. Human Metabolome Database. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- 3.Progestin regulation of cellular proliferation. Clark CL and Sutherland RL. Endocrine Review 1990;11: 266-301.
- 4.Physiological Action of Progesterone in Target Tissues. Graham JD and Clarke CL. Endocrine Reviews 1997;18: 502-519.
- 5. Progesterone, progestagens and the central nervous system. Hum Reprod Genazzani AR, Stomati M, Morittu A, Bernardi F, Monteleone P, Casarosa E, Gallo R, Salvestroni C and Luisi M. 2000; 15: 14-27.
- 6.Sex steroids and bone: current perspectives. Hum reprod update. Balasch J. 2003; 9: 207-22.
- 7.Simultaneous Radioimmunoassay of Plasma FSH, LH, Progesterone, 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, and Estradiol-17 beta During the Menstrual Cycle. Abraham GE, Odell WD, Swerdloff RS, Hopper K. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1972; 34:2, 312–318.
- 8.Studies on the Pattern of Circulating Steroids in the Normal Menstrual Cycle. Aedo AR, Nunez M, Landgren BM, Cekan SZ, Diczfalusy E. Circadian Variation in Theperi-Ovulatory Period. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh), 1977; 84:2, 320-332
- 9.Hormonal Profile of the Cycle in 68 Normally Menstruating Women. Landgren BM, Unden AL, and Diczfalusy E. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh), 1980; 94:1, 89-98.
- 10.Normal Ovarian Function. Erickson GG. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 1978; vol. 21 No.1, 31-53.
- 11.Physiological Profiles of Episodic Progesterone Release During the Midluteal Phase of the Human Menstrual Cycle: Analysis of Circadian and Ultradian Rhythms, Discrete Pulse Properties, and Correlations with Simultaneous Luteinizing Hormone Release. Veldhu
- 12.Neuroendocrine Regulation of the Corpus Luteum in the Human. Evidence for Pulsatile Progesterone Secretion. Filicori M, Butler JP, Crowley WF Jr., J Clin Invest, 1984; 73:6, 1638-1647.
- 13.The Pattern of Luteal Phase Plasma Progesterone and Estradiol in Fertile Cycles. Laufer N, Navot D, Schenker JG. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1982; 143:7, 808-813.
- 14.Method for Monitoring Plasma Progesterone Concentrations in Pregnancy. Winkel P, Gaede P, Lyngbye J Clin Chem 1976; 22:4,422-428.
- 15.The Applications of Steroid Hormone Radioimmunoassays to Clinical Obstetrics. Buster JE, Abraham GE. Obstet Gynecol, 1975; 46:4, 489-499